PPL Split Hypertrophy

7-Day PPL Split Hypertrophy: Sculpt Your Muscles with Hypertrophy

Are you tired of spinning your wheels in the gym, wondering how to pack on those coveted muscles effectively?  

Well, you’re not alone.  

Many fitness enthusiasts share the same burning desire for a workout routine that delivers maximum hypertrophy gains.  

That’s where the 7-day Push-Pull-Legs (PPL) split for hypertrophy comes into play.  

In this guide, we’re about to unveil the ultimate blueprint for sculpting your dream physique, ensuring you’re armed with the knowledge and strategy to turn your workout goals into a reality.  

Buckle up, because it’s time to embark on a journey to the strong, muscular you’ve always envisioned.  

Table of Contents

Understanding the PPL Split  

Seeking Rapid Results? Enter the Hypertrophy-Promoting PPL Split!  

You’re here because you crave results, and you crave them fast.  

You’ve likely overheard gym enthusiasts whispering about the Push-Pull-Legs (PPL) split, and you’re likely pondering if it’s the secret formula to unlock the gains you’ve been yearning for.  

Well, prepare for a delightful surprise because the PPL split isn’t just some trendy gym jargon.  

It’s a scientifically-backed, battle-tested strategy designed to fuel muscle growth – in simple terms, it’s your ticket to looking and feeling exceptional.  

So, What’s the Deal with the Hypertrophy PPL Split?  

Hypertrophy, in the realm of fitness, is the ultimate goal.  

It’s the transformational journey from “I lift a bit” to “I lift, and boy, do I look incredible doing it.” Now, couple that with the PPL split, and you’ve got the ultimate formula for success.  

Here’s the scoop: The PPL split dissects your workout regimen into three core categories – Push, Pull, and Legs.  

Each day is akin to a targeted mission for specific muscle groups.  

On Push Day, your focus is on the chest, shoulders, and triceps. Pull day?  

That’s all about dedicating quality time to your back and biceps.  

And Leg day, well, that’s when you shower your lower body with affection, prioritizing the development of quads, hamstrings, and calves.  

Now, let’s back this up with some solid scientific backing.  

Numerous studies(*) have established that training each muscle group twice a week, as the PPL split advocates, is a game-changer for hypertrophy.  

It all boils down to frequency – providing your muscles with a double dose of training stimulus to jumpstart the growth process.  

One study, featured in the “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,” concluded that elevated training frequencies, such as the PPL split, are strongly correlated with amplified muscle growth, particularly when you engage in compound exercises like squats and bench presses.  

But hang on, we’re only scratching the surface here.  

The PPL split also injects variety into your routine.  

By diversifying your exercises and adjusting your workout intensity, you minimize the risk of hitting that dreaded plateau.  

Say goodbye to months of stagnation – it’s time to embrace constant progress.  

Moreover, it’s akin to orchestrating a symphony for achieving balanced muscle development – no more neglecting leg day.  

Benefits of a 7-Day PPL Split for Hypertrophy  

You’re here for gains, and the Push-Pull-Legs (PPL) split is your ticket to muscle town.  

But why is it so darn effective, you ask?  

Buckle up, because we’re about to break it down in plain, no-nonsense terms, backed by science and real-world results.  

1. Frequency is Your Friend:  

Remember that buddy from school who you saw every day?  

You got pretty tight, right? Well, think of your muscles the same way.  

Studies like the one in the “Journal of Applied Physiology” show that hitting muscle groups twice a week, as the PPL split does, triggers more muscle protein synthesis – the key driver behind muscle growth.  

It’s like giving your muscles a constant invitation to the hypertrophy party.  

2. Outsmarting Plateaus:  

Plateaus are the enemy of progress, my friend. But with the PPL split, you’re constantly changing things up.

By varying exercises and intensity, you keep your muscles guessing, making it harder for them to adapt and plateau.  

This means continuous growth, not hitting that brick wall.  

3. Targeted Precision:  

Ever tried to build a piece of furniture without the right tools? Frustrating, right?  

The PPL split gives you the right tools for the job. Each workout day is like a precision strike, hitting specific muscle groups hard.  

When you’re working out your chest, shoulders, and triceps on Push Day, you’re laser-focused on maximizing growth in those areas.  

No more random workouts; this is surgical muscle sculpting.  

4. Balanced Muscles, Happy You:  

Ever seen someone with massive biceps but puny calves? Not a good look.  

The PPL split ensures you don’t leave any muscle group behind.  

You’re building a balanced physique, which is not just about aesthetics – it’s about functional strength and injury prevention.  

A study in the “Journal of Sports Science & Medicine” found that balanced training reduces the risk of overuse injuries.  

5. Compound Movements Dominate:  

The PPL split encourages you to embrace the power of compound movements like squats, deadlifts, and bench presses.  

These bad boys are like the heavy artillery of muscle growth.  

They recruit multiple muscle groups, helping you get the most bang for your buck in each workout session.  

Creating Your 7-Day PPL Split Routine  

Day 1: Push Day Workout – Unleash Your Upper Body Power  

Welcome to Day 1 of your Push Day workout – the day you sculpt a powerful upper body that commands attention. Let’s dive into the exercises that will have you pushing limits and building muscle like a champ.  

Bench Press:  

Bench Press
How to:  
  • Lie down on a bench with your feet flat on the ground.  
  • Grip the barbell with your hands slightly wider than shoulder-width apart.  
  • Lower the bar to your chest while keeping your elbows at a 45-degree angle.  
  • Push the bar back up until your arms are fully extended.  

The bench press is your ticket to a robust chest, broader shoulders, and powerful triceps. It’s not just about aesthetics; it also boosts upper body strength and gives you that ‘commanding presence’ in the gym.  

Overhead Press:  

overhead press
How to:  
  • Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart.  
  • Hold a barbell or dumbbell at shoulder height with your palms facing forward.  
  • Push the weight overhead until your arms are fully extended.  
  • Lower the weight back to shoulder height.  

The overhead press is your key to chiseled shoulders that pop. It doesn’t just enhance aesthetics; it also improves upper body strength and stability, giving you that ‘look at those shoulders’ moment.  

Triceps Dips:  

triceps dips
How to:  
  • Position yourself between parallel bars.  
  • Hold the bars with your palms facing down.  
  • Lower your body by bending your elbows until they’re at a 90-degree angle.  
  • Push your body back up, extending your arms fully.  

Triceps dips are your secret weapon for triceps dominance. They target and sculpt those triceps to perfection. Not just about looks, they contribute to overall upper body strength and functionality.  

Incline Bench Press:  

incline bench press
How to:  
  • Position yourself on an incline bench set at a 45-degree angle.  
  • Grasp the barbell with your hands slightly wider than shoulder-width apart.  
  • Lower the bar down to your upper chest.  
  • Push the barbell upward, fully extending your arms.  

The incline bench press zeroes in on your upper chest muscles, ensuring comprehensive chest development. It’s not just about aesthetics; it also amplifies upper body strength and symmetry.  

Day 2: Sculpt Your Back and Biceps  

Pull-Ups/Chin-Ups:  

pull ups
How to:  
  • Locate a sturdy horizontal bar positioned above you.  
  • For pull-ups, firmly grip the bar with your palms facing away from your body, ensuring a grip slightly wider than your shoulder width.  
  • In the case of chin-ups, clutch the bar with your palms facing toward you while maintaining a shoulder-width gap between your hands.  
  • Suspend your body from the bar, fully extending your arms.  
  • Initiate the movement by pulling your body upward until your chin surpasses the bar.  
  • Return to the starting position by fully extending your arms.  

Partaking in pull-ups and chin-ups unlocks the gateway to developing a robust back and biceps. These exercises activate numerous muscle groups, delivering an effective upper-body workout. Moreover, they enhance your grip strength and contribute to attaining that coveted V-shaped physique.  

Barbell Rows:  

barbell rows
How to:  
  • Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, clutching a barbell with an overhand grip.  
  • Hinge at your hips and bend your knees, ensuring your back remains straight.  
  • Allow the barbell to hang in front of you at arm’s length.  
  • Pull the barbell towards your lower abdomen, focusing on squeezing your shoulder blades together.  
  • Lower the barbell back to the starting position.  

Barbell rows are your key to targeting the mid-back muscles, bestowing upon you the revered V-shape. Additionally, they engage your lats, rhomboids, and traps, making them the ultimate choice for comprehensive back development and strength enhancement.  

Bicep Curls:  

biceps curl
How to:  
  • Stand with your feet hip-width apart, holding a dumbbell in each hand, palms facing forward.  
  • Keep your elbows close to your body.  
  • Curl the dumbbells towards your shoulders while keeping your upper arms stationary.  
  • Lower the dumbbells back to the starting position.  

Bicep curls are all about those guns. They isolate and build your bicep muscles, giving your arms that classic “pumped” look. Strong biceps are not just about aesthetics; they’re crucial for various everyday tasks.  

Lat Pulldowns:  

lat pull down
How to:  
  • Sit at a lat pulldown machine with your knees secured under the pads.  
  • Grip the bar wider than shoulder-width apart, palms facing forward.  
  • Pull the bar down to your chest, keeping your back straight.  
  • Slowly release the bar back to the starting position.  

Lat pulldowns primarily target your latissimus dorsi muscles, adding width to your back. They also engage your biceps and improve your overall upper body strength.  

Day 3: Legs Day Workout – Forge Strong Foundation  

Welcome to Day 3 of your fitness journey – Leg Day. It’s time to build a rock-solid foundation, and these exercises are your ticket to powerful legs and a sturdy base.  

Squats:  

squats
How to:  
  • Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart.  
  • Lower your body by bending your knees and hips, as if sitting back in a chair.  
  • Keep your back straight and chest up as you descend.  
  • Push through your heels to return to the starting position.  

Squats are your go-to for powerful quads, hamstrings, and glutes. But that’s not all – they improve overall lower body strength, balance, and even core stability. Leg day isn’t complete without them.  

Deadlifts:  

deadlift
How to:  
  • Stand with your feet hip-width apart, with a barbell in front of you.  
  • Bend at your hips and knees, keeping your back flat.  
  • Grip the barbell with hands shoulder-width apart.  
  • Lift the barbell by extending your hips and knees simultaneously.  
  • Lower the barbell back to the ground with control.  

Deadlifts work wonders for your posterior chain – the hamstrings, glutes, and lower back. They are a strength-building gem that also improves your posture and functional strength.  

Calf Raises:  

calf raises
How to:  
  • Stand on the edge of a step or platform with your heels hanging off.  
  • Raise your heels as high as possible by extending your ankles.  
  • Lower your heels below the step to stretch your calves.  
  • Rise back up to the starting position.  

Calf raises are your secret weapon for sculpting impressive calf muscles. Strong calves not only look great but also contribute to better balance and stability.  

Leg Press:  

leg press
How to:  
  • Sit in a leg press machine with your feet shoulder-width apart.  
  • Push the weight up by extending your knees.  
  • Lower the weight by bending your knees, and keeping your feet flat on the platform.  
  • Push the weight back up to the starting position.  

The leg press is a powerhouse for quads, hamstrings, and glutes. It allows you to lift heavy weights safely, contributing to muscle growth and lower body strength.  

Day 4: Intermission and Rejuvenation   

Kudos on surmounting three days of ardent exertion. Today, you are bestowed with a well-earned respite on Day 4.   

You might find yourself exclaiming, “A day of rest?   

But I’m ablaze with energy, eager to forge onward”   

Your enthusiasm is commendable, and in your fitness journey, it is your most steadfast ally.   

Yet, reflect upon this: even superheroes, in their valorous exploits, necessitate intervals of respite to replenish their vigor.   

Rest and recovery days are akin to enchanted interludes where the magic unfolds.   

They constitute the moments when your muscles convalesce and reinforce themselves.   

Regard it as a small gift, a token of appreciation to yourself for the tremendous dedication you’ve exhibited thus far.   

So, what endeavors can you embark upon on this day of reprieve? Here are a few notions:   

  • Stretching: Extend some tenderness to your muscles through the agency of gentle stretching routines. This not only mitigates soreness but also enhances suppleness.   
  • Foam Rolling: Should you possess the apparatus, indulging in foam rolling shall transform into a veritable panacea for muscle recuperation. It is, in essence, a self-administered massage for your weary musculature.   
  • Active Rest: If you detect a surfeit of restlessness, contemplate a stroll, yoga, or even a session of meditation to soothe your mind and invigorate your corporeal being.   
  • Hydration and Nourishment: Duly consider the constitution of your diet and, in particular, maintain vigilant hydration. Prudent nutrition stands as a cornerstone of the recovery process.   
  • Slumber: Dedicate this time to the pursuit of replenishing slumber. It is during these moments of repose that your body orchestrates the majority of its rejuvenation and expansion.  

Day 5: Push Day Workout – Unleash Your Upper Body Power  

Welcome back to Day 5 of your Push Day workout.  

We’re diving into the second part of your routine with these exercises that will have you pushing the limits and building muscle like a champ.  

Dumbbell Bench Press:  

Dumbbell Bench Press
How to:  
  • Lie flat on the bench with a dumbbell in each hand, palms facing forward.  
  • Extend your arms straight up, locking out your elbows.  
  • Lower the dumbbells to chest level, keeping your elbows at a 45-degree angle.  
  • Push the dumbbells back up to the starting position.  

The Dumbbell bench press provides a different angle for chest development. It targets your pectoral muscles, but it also challenges your stabilizing muscles more than a barbell bench press. This exercise is like sculpting your chest with precision.  

Arnold Press:  

Arnold Press
How to:  
  • Sit or stand with a dumbbell in each hand, palms facing you.  
  • Start with the dumbbells at shoulder height.  
  • Rotate your palms outward as you press the dumbbells overhead.  
  • Fully extend your arms, then reverse the motion to return to shoulder height.  

Arnold press is a unique shoulder exercise that works all three parts of the deltoid muscles. It enhances shoulder development and mobility, giving you those rounded, cannonball shoulders you’ve been dreaming of.  

Close-Grip Bench Press:  

How to:  
  • Lie on the bench with your hands gripping the barbell closer than shoulder-width apart.  
  • Lower the barbell to your chest while keeping your elbows close to your body.  
  • Push the barbell back up to the starting position.  

The close-grip bench press is all about those triceps. It isolates and targets the triceps more intensely than regular bench presses, helping you build impressive arm definition and strength.  

Front Raises:  

front raises
How to:  
  • Stand with a dumbbell in each hand, palms facing your thighs.  
  • Lift the dumbbells in front of you until they reach shoulder height.  
  • Lower the dumbbells back to your thighs.  

Front raises isolate the front deltoid muscles, adding to the overall roundness of your shoulders. This exercise enhances shoulder aesthetics and complements your upper body development.  

Day 6: Pull Day Workout – Define Your Back and Arms  

Welcome to Day 6 of your fitness journey – Pull Day. We’re diving into exercises that’ll sculpt your back, strengthen your arms, and improve your overall posture. Get ready to conquer these moves.  

T-Bar Rows:  

t-bar rows
How to:  
  • Load a T-Bar row machine with the desired weight.  
  • Straddle the bar, gripping the handles with both hands.  
  • Keep your back straight and chest up.  
  • Pull the bar towards your lower abdomen, squeezing your shoulder blades together.  
  • Lower the bar back down with control.  

T-bar rows are your secret weapon for middle-back development. They stimulate growth in various back muscles, giving you that coveted V-shape and adding depth to your physique.  

Face Pulls:  

face pulls
How to:  
  • Attach a rope handle to a cable machine at chest height.  
  • Stand facing the machine, holding the rope with both hands.  
  • Step back slightly and extend your arms.  
  • Pull the rope towards your face, focusing on squeezing your shoulder blades together.  
  • Lower the rope back to the starting position.  

Face pulls are your go-to for strengthening the upper back and rear deltoids. They’re like a posture makeover, improving your shoulder health and overall upper body stability.  

Hammer Curls:  

How to:  
  • Stand with a dumbbell in each hand, palms facing your torso.  
  • Keep your elbows close to your body.  
  • Curl the dumbbells towards your shoulders while keeping your upper arms stationary.  
  • Lower the dumbbells back to the starting position.  

Hammer curls provide variety for bicep development. They target both the biceps and brachialis muscles, adding depth to your arms. Plus, they boost forearm strength for a well-rounded upper body.  

Seated Cable Rows:  

seated cable rows
How to:  
  • Sit at a cable row machine with your feet on the platform and knees slightly bent.  
  • Grip the handles with both hands, palms facing each other.  
  • Keep your back straight and chest up.  
  • Pull the handles towards your lower ribcage, squeezing your lats.  
  • Extend your arms to return to the starting position.  

Seated cable rows are your ticket to a wider and more defined back. They target the latissimus dorsi and mid-back muscles, giving you that powerful V-shaped torso.  

Day 7: Legs Day Workout – The Ultimate Leg Sculptors  

Welcome to Day 7 of your fitness journey – Legs Day (Part 2). We’re diving into the second part of your leg workout with exercises that will sculpt your lower body and help you stand tall with strength.  

Front Squats:  

How to:  
  • Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, holding a barbell in front of your shoulders.  
  • Cross your arms to hold the barbell in place, keeping your elbows high.  
  • Lower your body by bending your knees and hips, keeping your back straight.  
  • Push through your heels to return to the starting position.  

Front squats are the ultimate leg sculptors. They primarily target your quadriceps while engaging your core and improving overall leg strength and stability. Say hello to those sculpted quads.  

Romanian Deadlifts:  

Romanian Deadlifts
How to:  
  • Take your stance with feet hip-width apart, gripping either a barbell or dumbbell firmly in front of your thighs.  
  • Initiate the movement by hinging at your hips, maintaining a slight bend in your knees, and guiding the weight downwards.  
  • Throughout the motion, uphold a strong, straight back and a proud chest, descending until you sense a gentle pull in your hamstrings.  
  • Now, elevate yourself back to the initial position, driving through your hips.  

Romanian deadlifts are the ultimate catalyst for transforming your hamstrings and glutes. They also engage your lower back, profoundly enhancing your overall posterior chain potency. This regimen is the key to cultivating robust, well-balanced lower limbs and bolstering lower-body steadiness.  

Calf Raises:  

Calf Raises
How to:  
  • Position yourself at the edge of a step or platform, ensuring your heels dangle freely off the edge.  
  • Initiate the exercise by ascending your heels as high as your ankles can stretch.  
  • For a comprehensive stretch, descend your heels below the level of the step.  
  • Gradually return to the starting point.  

Standing calf raises persistently hone and sculpt your calf muscles. Robust calves are not only visually appealing but also vital for refining your equilibrium, and stability, and fortifying the strength of your lower legs.  

Hack Squats:  

How to:  
  • Find your place within the hack squat machine, positioning your shoulders securely beneath the pads.  
  • Ensure your feet are spaced shoulder-width apart on the platform.  
  • To initiate the exercise, bend your knees, maintain back-to-pad contact, and lower your body.  
  • With a forceful extension of your knees, push the platform back to the starting position.  

Hack squats stand as another juggernaut for your lower limbs, actively engaging your quads, hamstrings, and glutes. They serve as an outstanding alternative to conventional squats, infusing diversity into your leg regimen and fostering symmetrical leg development.  

Exercise Selection and Execution  

You’re on a mission to maximize muscle growth, and selecting and executing the right exercises is your secret weapon. Let’s get down to the nitty-gritty in simple, no-nonsense terms.  

Exercise Selection:  

  • Compound Movements Rule: Start with compound exercises like bench presses, squats, and deadlifts. They work multiple muscle groups simultaneously, giving you more bang for your buck.  
  • Isolation for Detail: Supplement compound movements with isolation exercises like tricep dips, bicep curls, and front raises. These fine-tune specific muscles, adding depth and detail to your physique.  
  • Variety is Key: Change up your exercises regularly to prevent plateaus and ensure balanced development. For example, switch between barbell and dumbbell variations or try different grips.  
  • Target Weak Points: Identify your weaker areas and select exercises that emphasize those muscles. If your chest lags, prioritize chest-focused exercises.  

Execution:  

  • Proper Form is Non-Negotiable: Form trumps weight. Always prioritize perfect form to avoid injury and maximize muscle engagement.  
  • Control the Weight: Use a controlled tempo – both the lifting and lowering phases should be deliberate. No swinging or heaving.  
  • Mind-Muscle Connection: Focus on the muscle you’re working. Feel it contract and stretch with each repetition. This mental connection boosts muscle activation.  
  • Progressive Overload: Gradually increase weights or repetitions to challenge your muscles. This forces them to adapt and grow.  
  • Rest and Recovery: Give muscles at least 48 hours of rest between intense workouts. Muscles grow during recovery, not in the gym.  

Nutrition Guidelines for Maximizing Hypertrophy  

Let’s dive headfirst into the realm of nourishment because, let’s be honest, no amount of training can compensate for a poor diet. Here’s your roadmap to fueling your journey toward epic gains, and we’ll keep it as engaging and relatable as chatting with your trusty workout partner.  

Macronutrients: The Cornerstones  

Picture macronutrients as the fundamental building blocks for your muscular aspirations. There are three main players on this team:  

  • Protein: Your muscles’ best ally. Load up on sources like lean meats, fish, eggs, and plant-based options such as tofu and tempeh. Think of it as the binding agent that cements your muscle blocks together.  
  • Carbohydrates: The epicenter of energy. Opt for complex carbohydrates like quinoa, brown rice, sweet potatoes, and whole grains. They provide the necessary fuel to conquer those demanding lifts.  
  • Healthy Fats: Embrace the benefits of fats. Avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil are your comrades here. They play a role in supporting hormone production and overall well-being.  

Meal Preparation: Your Time-Efficient Solution  

In the realm of hypertrophy, consistency reigns supreme. Meal prep is your covert weapon. Dedicate a couple of hours on Sunday to prepare your meals for the week. It’s akin to having your very own culinary wizard, without the hefty price tag.  

Plant-Based Snacks: Vegan Muscle Nourishment  

Transitioning to a plant-based lifestyle? No problem at all. Snack on nuts, seeds, and homemade protein bars. These options are packed with muscle-nurturing nutrients.  

Gluten and Dairy-Free Choices: Alleviating Inflammation  

For some, life without gluten and dairy is preferable. If you’re in this camp, opt for gluten-free grains like quinoa and explore dairy-free alternatives such as almond milk or coconut yogurt.  

Juicing and Smoothies: Liquid Nourishment  

Sipping your nutrients offers convenience. Whip up a protein-rich smoothie featuring ingredients like spinach, banana, protein powder, and almond milk. Just be vigilant about excess sugar in store-bought juices.  

Intermittent Fasting: Timing is Key  

Intermittent fasting can be effective for certain individuals. Consider a 16:8 approach – fasting for 16 hours followed by an 8-hour eating window. This method can aid in calorie control and enhance insulin sensitivity.  

Vegan Lifestyle: Harnessing Plant Power  

Veganism isn’t limited to a niche group anymore. Plant-based diets can supply all the protein and nutrients required for hypertrophy. Just ensure careful meal planning to secure sufficient protein from sources such as legumes, tofu, and tempeh.  

Here’s the bottom line – there’s no one-size-fits-all diet. It’s all about discovering what suits you best, which might involve some trial and error. Maintain a food journal to monitor your energy levels and muscle progress. Always seek guidance from a registered dietitian or nutritionist to refine your nutritional strategy.  

Conclusion  

Congratulations, you’ve completed a week of intense workouts, pushing your limits and sculpting your body into a work of art.

Remember, fitness is a journey, and each day in the gym is a step closer to your goals.  

But here’s the secret: It’s not just about physical gains. It’s about feeling stronger, healthier, and more confident every day.

It’s about the discipline, dedication, and determination you bring to every workout.  

So, whether you’re lifting heavy or taking a well-deserved rest, keep going. Your body and mind will thank you.

This is your journey, your transformation, and the best is yet to come. Stay focused, stay motivated, and keep chasing those gains. You’ve got this.  

Frequently Asked Questions  

Is the 7-Day PPL split suitable for beginners?  

The 7-day PPL split is better suited for intermediate to advanced lifters who have a solid foundation of strength and experience. Beginners should start with simpler routines.  

How should I adjust my diet while following this split?  

To support muscle growth, ensure you’re consuming enough protein and calories. Consider consulting a nutritionist for personalized guidance.  

Can I incorporate cardio into this routine?  

Yes, you can add cardio sessions on rest days or after your workouts to enhance cardiovascular health without compromising muscle growth.  

What should I do if I hit a plateau in my progress?  

Plateaus are common. To break through, adjust your exercise selection, increase weights gradually, and ensure you’re getting adequate sleep and nutrition.  

Is it essential to track my progress while following the 7-day PPL split?  

Tracking your progress is crucial for optimizing your results. Keep a workout journal to record weights, repetitions, and any changes in your physique.  

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